A method must be provided for users to enter text and other character-based information without restriction.
*** Forms as a way to collect information in an ordered manner pre-date computing by at least a century. Many standards were developed in the paper form era, and have translated to computerized database forms, and then to web forms. The ubiquity of the web -- to software developers if not all users -- means forms for all computing types have settled on these standard input methods.
This pattern covers the text and textarea form methods.
Text - one-line
Textarea - multi-line
cursor and focus...
enter is a linefeed on multi-line, submits forms or exits the field on single line
notes about input method and reference
field hints in the field, adjacent to the field, pros and cons of each